The Journal of Charles Rawn
March 27, 1832 to February 5, 1833 (Book 3)

Edited by Rachel M. Hermann

Rawn as a Single Man—and his Courtship

For my master’s thesis, I have edited the journal of Charles Rawn. He was a single man during this portion of his journal, which was written on the eve of his marriage. Surely his bachelorhood had an impact on the way he spent his time, and with whom he associated. Without a family to care for, he does not spend his evenings at home. Instead, he spent them visiting friends, working in his office, riding horses, courting the ladies, and attending community meetings. His most frequent hosts were the Peacocks, Clendenins, or Shunk, whom he called upon in the evenings. However, he was not their only visitor. Rawn consistently listed all the people who were visiting the same places he was. Oftentimes there would be a group of four to six gentlemen and three to four women, along with the elders of the community. Rawn does not mention the reasons for these gatherings. Presumably, they were simply friendly visits for the purpose of discussing the day’s events.

Aside from these evening gatherings, Rawn also attended several parties throughout the year. Although he never explicitly expresses his enjoyment of these activities, but the fact that he continues to attend implies that they were not merely social obligations, and he likely had a good time. He often notes what kinds of parties they are and the size, but writes little else about them. However, for one of the parties on September 6, 1832, he wrote that “harp + violin were played by strollers + waltzing + dancing."1 Earlier on the same day he attended a “Brides” party as well. On the following day he addend a “Large party….at Wyeth’s—had violin + harp + dancing.”2 He never seems to tire of the parties, and writes as though they are common part of his life. Not once throughout Book 3 of his journal does he mention opting to relax at home rather than attend a party. There are only two evenings where he specifically mentions staying at home. On one of these occasions, he is sick all day, and the other he worked in his office and then returned home.3 There are a few evenings where he goes somewhere, only staying for a “short time”, then returning home between nine and ten o’clock. It is hard to say if this sort of lifestyle changed as his career progressed, or after his marriage. One would need to compare this volume of his journal with later ones.

If it is not apparent at the beginning of Book 3 that he is courting Francs P. Clendenin, then it is certainly clear by the end. During the last few months he is increasingly spending more evenings at her home. However, throughout the entire journal she is mentioned often, and he appears to enjoy her company, for they spend a great deal of time together. He either visits or writes her nearly everyday. During one of his trips to Philadelphia, on May 17, 1832 he writes a letter to “Mary S. Clendenin + F. P. Clendenin + Nancy McCullough. Also a separate one to F P Clendenin.” On other occasions he simply states he wrote a long letter to Frances Clendenin. The two often took walks together, he escorted her to parties, and they would have ice cream together. Many of their activities are spent among their circle of friends, making it hard to define their courtship independently.

Rawn never directly states his feelings, attitudes, or perceptions of Miss Clendenin. The only way to infer about them is through his descriptions of their activities together. He does mention visiting other women. However, these are rare occasions, and do not seem nearly as significant as his visits with Miss Clendenin. These visits are presumably no more than friendly visits. During the month of December alone, he reported to have visited with Frances Clendenin on 20 of the 31 days. On the days he did not see her, one of them had been out of town. Their correspondence and the number of evenings he spends at her house increases noticeably during the course of the journal. Of some significance, Miss Clendenin was about 12 years younger than Rawn. At the time they married, she was 18 while he was 30. It was somewhat common for older, established men to marry younger women at this time, and this was probably an accepted courtship and marriage. The Clendenins were also a part of the same social circle as Rawn, which may have helped reconcile the age difference. Clearly, Rawn leads a social life, which can be attributed to the fact that he is single. However, his social life does revolve around more than just parties and courting Frances Clendenin.

The lawyers of 1830-1870

At the time in which Charles Rawn began practicing law, lawyers were not held in the highest esteem. “Law” schools were not usually the method of formal training as they are today, nor were the existence of large legal practices. Admittance to the Bar varied from state to state and even region to region. Most usually required 3-5 years of education and experience, and some states required some sort of an examination. Although one could go to college for a legal education, many received their training from studying independently under a lawyer. These “apprenticeships” were helpful to all parties involved. Generally it worked: “For a fee, the lawyer-to-be hung around an office, read Blackstone and Coke, and a miscellany of other books, and copied legal documents. If he was lucky, he benefited from watching the lawyer do his work, and do it well.”4 Rawn followed this all too common pattern. He was educated at the West Chester Academy in Pennsylvania. In 1826 he began studying law with Francis R. Shunk. It was not until 1831—five years later—in which he was admitted to the Dauphin County Bar and began his practice.

Rawn began his practice just as the American legal system was coming of age. Previously, all legal writings, cases, and literature were based on English law. By this time, American lawyers, although few and far between, began recording cases, putting together compilations, and establishing periodicals. “Before 1830 twelve periodicals were founded….in 1830 there were five. The American Jurist and Law Magazine (1829-1842) founded by Willard Phillips, was one of the five….It contained scholarly essays on points of law, case notes, historical notes, and question-and-answer materials.”5 With little new material to research, Rawn and other lawyers certainly had their work cut out for them. They were setting the stage for the future legal system in America. In the 10 ½ months of Book 3 of his journal, Rawn mentions “Law books” on three occasions, and it is only Blackstone’s which he mentions by name. In this way we know Rawn was educated in the prevailing manner, and was one of the new breed of lawyers that would carry on through the Civil War.

At this time America was in a transition. She had already established her independence from England, and the tensions of slavery were waiting in the wings. Americans were defining the limits of democracy, their social structure, and their differences. This is the society Tocqueville visited, commenting: “American society seems to live from day to day, like an army on active service. Nevertheless, the art of administration is certainly a science, and all sciences, to make progress, need to link the discoveries of succeeding generations.”6 There was no immediate threat of war, and politics were going through some transitions. The Whig party was becoming the second party. The courts at the federal level were fairly calm. The only major cases between 1830 and 1835 are Cherokee Nation v Georgia (1831) and Worcester v Georgia (1832), both of which revolve around the displacement of the Indian tribes. As illustrated in Charles Rawn’s journal, the local courts were busy settling local disputes, and charging local criminals for local crimes.

Just as admission to the bar varied from region to region, so did their standards and expectations of Americans. Americans generally believed a man could succeed from his own efforts. This held true especially for white Protestants. Lawyers were not exempt from this; rather, they were the living examples.7 Bloomfield explains the rationale: “Since law was a rational science, they [middle-class Americans] argued, its basic principles could be grasped by all men….Success in this context depended upon common sense and first hand knowledge of everyday life, two qualities in which most early lawyers had excelled.”8 Charles Rawn exemplified these ideas. He was a white-Protestant American who moved through society as he moved to study law and become a successful lawyer. He was a well-traveled man who knew the ins and outs of daily life. Since Rawn studied under Shunk and did not attend a formal law school, he rose up through his own hard work and determination. Like many lawyers of his time, this would have an impact in the way he practiced law and communicated within society. Through his defenses of a black man and his later involvements within the anti-slavery movement, we learn Rawn believed everyone deserved a fair chance at success.

It was very important for a lawyer of his time to be involved in other ventures beyond a legal career. Part of the reasoning for this was to curtail the animosity the public held for lawyers. Clearly, Rawn was an active man in his community. He made sure he kept himself busy with his involvement within the Harrisburg Greys, his attendance and participation in town meetings, and the social life of parties. Although the old style lawyers trained him, he was part of a new breed that would stay away from elected political offices. “Since an attorney’s practice so often revolved about business questions, a personal involvement in the world of affairs could prove beneficial both to his pocketbook and to his standing at the bar. He might safely engage in real estate ventures, railroad promotion, or banking so long as he continued to give his paramount allegiance to the law.”9 By being involved in these sorts of ventures, the lawyer put himself on the same level as other entrepreneurs, and on their side of the political and legal spectrum. It is hard to judge exactly how beneficial this was, but by looking at Rawn’s journal it seems as though he was viewed publicly in a positive light.

Previously, many lawyers had followed the political course. However, this trend was coming under attack. Part of the reason was that goals of the two parties conflicted. As pointed out by Bloomfield, “It was not pride or fastidiousness that kept the best attorneys out of politics in the Jacksonian era, …but the fact that politics had developed into a full-fledged profession with specialized rules of its own—several of which ran counter to deeply cherished legal attitudes and practices.”10 Many of the lawyers who did go into politics were commonly third and fourth-rate lawyers. Are we to assume from this that Rawn was a first or second-rate attorney for his time? A judgment such as this cannot be made based on one journal and one from the early part of his career at that. However, he does not go into politics further than appearing (through his journal) to be a staunch supporter of his party and a participant in helpful campaigning such as conventions and meetings.

Often Rawn writes of occasions where a client had come to his office or had written a letter requesting his services. This system was developed because “A mass of literature stretching back to the Middle Ages condemned the improper solicitation of legal business and required that the lawyer wait patiently in his office for clients to appear.”11 Rawn abided by this, and most likely found it helpful. Since he was a criminal and defense lawyer, he was likely to have clients who needed him.

The ways in which law was practiced and cases were handled varied somewhat during this time. In Justice Without Law? Jerold Auerbach writes of the importance and uses of arbitration in civil suits during the early part of the nineteenth century. This method was short-lived and died out as the nineteenth century progressed. One of the staunchest proponents of this method was William Duane, a Philadelphian. For his argument advocating arbitration he looked to Pennsylvania Quakers, Colonial merchants, and others. His main point was simple: he wanted the end of what he saw as “the ‘oppression of the people by lawyers,’ for litigation contributed nothing but ‘intolerable expense, delay, and uncertainty.’ Arbitration was his solution.”12 The arbitration advocated by Duane was an earlier and somewhat different version as practiced by Rawn, keeping in mind Rawn was a lawyer and Duane was against the use of lawyers. However, arbitration as practiced by Rawn shows some similarities, and is quite possibly a revised form. Looking at the profile of cases in which Rawn participated, nearly 25% are explicitly noted as being settled through arbitration. None of the cases settled through arbitration is mentioned as having a judge involved. Instead, other lawyers and citizens are called in as arbiters. In a few instances, Rawn is an arbiter. In some cases, Rawn only states the names of the parties involved, not whether the dispute was settled through arbitration or if a jury decided them. From this, we can conclude that although arbitration may not have had a long life, Rawn was an active participant of this method.

Based on the information available to us, we can see Rawn was fairly typical of lawyers of his time. The lawyers between 1830 and 1870 were a new breed—often taught in the old style, yet many broke away from the traditions set by their teachers. The developing enthusiasm for an American legal system with American law books and law cases help to motivate their thinking. Rawn was one of many who helped to create the legal system during this time, intentionally or not. Unfortunately, Rawn does not utilize his journal as a place to enter his thoughts or his philosophies. Thus, we can only look at what he did, and how he practiced, not at how he felt about the course of the legal profession in which he participated. We do not know if he was consciously aware of the fact that he followed the similar pattern of his day, or if he practiced the way he wanted to. Whatever the case may be, Rawn provides us with a view of his profession as it stood in 1832 and 1833.

Editorial Notes

I have tried to keep everything as original as possible. For authenticity, I have kept the uses of punctuation the same. Occasionally, I have added an extra space in between two thoughts where he had no punctuation. He often capitalizes words in the middle of a sentence, and does not always capitalize them at the beginning. I have kept the capitalization the same as well. I have also included extra spaces when there is a new sentence and there is no capitalization. Charles Rawn underlines many words in his journal. Words most commonly underlined are names of people who have sent him a letter, or to those he writes in reply. Rawn also underlines many of the amounts of dollar transactions. He records many of his debits, and these are underlined as well. Rawn also had the habit of underlining the date.

Often Rawn will superscript various words. He may have done this to save time, space, paper, or ink. The most common superscripted words are: returned, evening, and Philadelphia; he also superscripts the names of a few people. I have continued to superscript them as he has. Occasionally Rawn would make a mistake and cross the word out. In most of these cases, the word crossed out is still readable, and so they are included in the transcribed form with a line through them. At the same time, Rawn has spelling errors. I have kept the spellings the same. At times this makes it hard to understand what he is writing about, so these words are footnoted with the correct spelling and definition at the bottom of the page. In cases where I could not read or understand a word, I have left a set of empty brackets. These denote that there should be a word in that space, but the word was not legible. There are also a few brackets with letters or words in them. These indicate my best estimate of what is written in his journal.

Every time Rawn begins a new page, he writes the month, day, and year at the top of the page. He also begins with “cont.” However, since they are redundant, I have opted to leave them out. In their place I have written in parentheses “new page.” He also sometimes repeats a word or two from the previous page to the next. Since these show his train of thought, I have retained the repeated words.


1 - September 6, 1832

2 - September 7, 1832

3 - July 27, 1832, and December 21, 1832

4 - Friedman, Lawrence M. A History of American Law (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985), p. 318

5 - Ibid. p. 329

6 - Tocqueville, Alexis De, Democracy in America. Translated by George Lawrence. (New York: Harper & Row, 1969) p.208

7 - Bloomfield, Maxwell American Lawyers in a Changing Society 1776-1876 (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1976) p. 146

8 - Ibid. p. 145

9 - Ibid. p. 148

10 - Ibid. p. 149

11 - Bloomfield, p. 150

12 - Auerbach, Jacob S. Justice Without Law? (New York: Oxford University Press,, 1983) p. 48

The Journal

Transcriptions for this section of the journal begin March 27, 1832 and end February 5, 1833. Click on a date to begin reading.

Law Practice Activities

Here is a compilation of the various cases in which Rawn participated. This is not a list of all his legal proceedings. Nearly every day he mentions something that relates to his work. I have gathered a list of the cases throughout his journal. The dates listed next to them are not necessarily the dates in which they were held; rather they are the dates in which he first mentions them. Some of them may even be a case that precedes this volume of his journal. Several of the cases lasted for more than one day as well.

Although Rawn was a criminal lawyer, we learn from this profile and his journal that he did more than defend criminals. Many of the cases are suits against another person, and oftentimes the manner of the suit is not mentioned. He also attended land appraisements, wills, and domestic attachments. Throughout his journal, there are several depositions, promissory notes, subpoena, writs of Habeas corpus, and payment for his legal services mentioned. These I have decided to leave out of the profile because they were very frequent and it was not always clear what cases they pertained to.

Fought v Musser—Arbitration suitMarch 31, 1832
John King v BloomfieldApril 2, 1832
Samuel Rawn v George Willamson—suitApril 3, 1832
Mrs. Gemmel v Seiler Esqr.—Arbitration suitApril 21, 1832
Executed deed to Samuel WarnerMay 19, 1832
Orphans CourtJune 11, 1832
Lubrich v Subold—Arbitration suitJune 16, 1832
Philip Newbeker v William Reed—suit
Duss v McCloud—suit
July 17, 1832
Defended William Bradley—Charge of LarcenyJuly 23, 1832
Issued summons against Stephen Durean and Jacob D. WahonJuly 29, 1832
Greydon v. John King—suitAugust 10, 1832
Defended Dorsey—LarcenyAugust 21, 1832
J.S. v B.J. Wiestling—suit (does not mention if parties are related)September 4, 1832
H. Scott v McCordSeptember 8, 1832
Gemmel v Leslie—ArbitrationSeptember 10, 1832
Suit of WyethSeptember 12, 1832
Hopple v Serner—Arbitration suit
Agnew v T. Cromwell
Krause v McKinney
September 26, 1832
Orphan Court—petition of Joardian for Emeline Keller KingsOctober 2, 1832
Dyre v McCord—Arbitration suitOctober 6, 1832
Court of Common PleasOctober 15, 1832
Bliss v Schoyer—suitOctober 30, 1832
Newbeker v Bower—Arbitration suitNovember 3, 1832
Woods v Rouv—suit no. 114November 7, 1832
Philip Newbeker v Brown no. 62November 9, 1832
Reed v Newbeker—Arbitration suitNovember 15, 1832
Assigned to defend Chapman
Defended George Hebner
Defended Middleton Cooley
November 22, 1832
Defended Eberle—Arrested for debtDecember 24, 1832
Agnew v Irwin—Arbitration suitDecember 27, 1832
Petition of Insolvent lands for John HockerJanuary 21, 1833
Prosecutor for Fredrick Silsburg for LarcenyJanuary 22, 1833
Counsel for Philip Creek—indicted for ManslaughterJanuary 24, 1833
Defended Jas Kennedy—for LarcenyJanuary 25, 1833
Snively caseJanuary 26, 1833
Reported to Pennsylvania Reporter cases at Oyer and TerminerJanuary 30, 1833
Orphan Court—petition for sale of Jacob AllenFebruary 5, 1833

List of Names Mentioned

  • Adams, William
  • Agnew, Jas.
  • Alexander, Captain
  • Allen, Jacob
  • Alricks, Hamilton
  • Alricks, Herman
  • Alricks, Miss Catherine
  • Anderson, Dr.
  • Anderson, Samuel
  • Antes
  • Armor, Captain
  • Atlee, William A.
  • Ayres, William Esqr.
  • Badger, Mr. Bela
  • Baily, Hiram, and wife, Sarah Bailey
  • Baily, Major Joel
  • Barber, Mr.
  • Barns, S. L.
  • Bayers
  • Bealty, Dr.
  • Bealty, George
  • Beaver, Jacob
  • Bedell, Mr.
  • Bell, William
  • Benedict, Esqr.
  • Berber, Dr.
  • Berghaus, Dr. Charles. H.
  • Berry, Oliver
  • Bertram
  • Biddle, Leut.
  • Biggler, John
  • Bless, Elain
  • Blisden
  • Bloomfield, Captain Thomas
  • Bose Elizabeth
  • Bowman
  • Bradley, John
  • Bradley, William
  • Brewster, F. E., Esqr.
  • Brien
  • Briggs, John
  • Brinton, Steel
  • Brooks, Jho., Esq.
  • Brooks, Missess
  • Brown, Chas., Esqr
  • Brown, Hales
  • Browne, P. A., Esqr
  • Buehler, Hon. John Le
  • Buehler, M.
  • Buehler, Mrs.
  • Buffington, John
  • Burden, Dr.
  • Burnside, Jos.
  • Burrs
  • Cameron, D.
  • Cameron, Eliza
  • Cameron, General
  • Cameron, John
  • Capps
  • Carlton, Peter A.
  • Carpenters
  • Carson, Charles
  • Carter, Ezekial
  • Cassinger
  • Cattrell, William
  • Chandler, George
  • Chandler, Jonathon
  • Cheyney, Chas. H. - A family member of Rawn’s
  • Cheyney, David R. - A family member of Rawn’s
  • Cheyney, J. W. H. - A family member of Rawn’s
  • Cheyney, William (Uncle) - A family member of Rawn’s
  • Clark, Sarah
  • Clarkson
  • Clemson, Amos
  • Clendeda Norman
  • Clendenin, Frances C. - A friend and future wife
  • Clendenin, John Joseph - A friend
  • Clendenin, Mary Scott - A friend
  • Clendenin, Mrs. - Mother of Frances, Mary Scott, and John Jas. Clendenin
  • Cloud, Josiah P.
  • Coulle, Mr
  • Cox, Charles Jr.
  • Creek, Philip
  • Creesh, Esqr.
  • Criegh
  • Cromwell, T.
  • Cross, Mr. Henry
  • Cross, Mr. John
  • Cross, Mrs.
  • Culp, Lewis
  • Curran, Mrs.
  • Curson, Mrs. - Rawn’s Washerwoman
  • Curson, Ed
  • Davis, Chas
  • De Witt, Reverend Miles
  • Dean, Dr. A.J
  • DeArmints, Mrs.
  • Delworth, James
  • Deprefontaine, John - Justice of the Peace in Philadelphia County
  • Divina, John - An Irishman
  • Dorsey - A black fellow
  • Duck
  • Duffield, Mr.
  • Dunlop
  • Durean, Stephen
  • Dyre, Joseph
  • Eberle, Henry
  • Elder, Esqr.
  • Elder, Josiah
  • Ellison
  • Epilauttes, E.
  • Eshelman, Henry
  • Espy, Jaury
  • Fage, W.
  • Faggert
  • Fahnestock
  • Fairlumb, Fredrick
  • Faleanin
  • Faraquar, Mr.
  • Feen, Mr. S.
  • Fell, William
  • Felton, John, Esqr.
  • Fertig, Peter
  • Findlay, John K., Esqr.
  • Fisher, Catherine
  • Fishers, George
  • Fishner, Thomas A.
  • Forester, Perry
  • Forester, Thomas M.
  • Forster, David
  • Forster, May
  • Fought
  • Franklins, Walter S.
  • Fray, Andrew
  • Frayelne
  • Fredleys
  • Fryune, Holbrook
  • Fyng, Mr.
  • Galharth, Mo, Esqr.
  • Gallaugher, George
  • Geese, David
  • Gemmel, Dr. J. M.
  • Gemmel, John D.
  • Gemmel, Mrs. R.
  • Gemmel, Thomas
  • George - Black man
  • Gibbons
  • Gibson, Judge
  • Glecin
  • Gleisons
  • Goodman, Mr.
  • Graydon, Esqr.
  • Greens, Judge
  • Hace, Rev., Mr.
  • Hahary, Mrs.
  • Hahulen, Mr.
  • Haldeman, also spelled Halderman
  • Haldman, Sarah
  • Hale, B.
  • Hamilton, A. Boyd
  • Hamilton, Hugh
  • Hannum, R.E.
  • Hare, David
  • Harris, W., Esqr.
  • Hazard, Solomon
  • Hebner, George
  • Hebners, Boyer
  • Heisleys
  • Heloner, George
  • Henrick, Judge
  • Henrie, Nathanial - Owner of a livery stable
  • Henry, Mrs.
  • Hetzel, Dr. J. Newton
  • Hetzel, Hiram
  • Hetzel, Mr. and Mrs.
  • Hicks, Ross H.
  • Hierter, A.O.
  • Hildebury
  • Hocker, John
  • Hoffman, John G.
  • Hopple, J.
  • Hossinger
  • Hummel, Judge
  • Hunk, Mrs
  • Hunt, Mr. - Of Chester County
  • Hunters, George
  • Hutton, James
  • Hy - Black girl
  • Ickes, Dr., also spelled Iches
  • Irwin, H.
  • Jackson - Black boy
  • Jacobs, J.
  • Jefferson, Old Mr.
  • Joardian
  • Johnson, D.M.
  • Johnson, John
  • Josiah - Black man at Wallace
  • Junkin, Dr., also spelled Judkin
  • Kankles
  • Kemble, George - Tailor
  • Kinding, C.S., also spelled Kendeg
  • King, George
  • King, John
  • King, Mrs.
  • Kings, Emeline Keller
  • Kirk
  • Kissinger, Mr.
  • Kisson, R. M.
  • Knepley, Tho.
  • Krause, David
  • Landis, J. B.
  • Learle, Mr.
  • Lemer, Dr. Lerue
  • Leslie, Mr.
  • Leslie, Mrs.
  • Lewis, Elli
  • Lewis, Fredrick
  • Loackers, General
  • Lochman
  • Lubrich
  • Mahon, Alexander
  • Manay, J.
  • Marcy, Judge
  • Marsden - A preacher
  • Martin, Marcus
  • McAllisters
  • McClure, Mrs.
  • McCord
  • McCormicks, Esqr.
  • McCullough, Miss Nancy, also spelled McCullloh
  • McGowan
  • McKeans, General
  • McKinny, Mr.
  • McKissick, R.
  • Mclans
  • McRoberts
  • Meann, Job
  • Mentayre, Lewis
  • Merrill, Miss
  • Middleton, Cooley - A client
  • Millers, Jacob
  • Minay
  • Mitchell
  • Moore, James
  • Morrig, Charles
  • Mowry
  • Mueller, Ross
  • Murray, Mrs.
  • Murray, Samuel - Owner of a Livery Stable Rawn frequents
  • Musgrove, Mrs.
  • Musser
  • Nabb, Perry C. - Entered election bet with Rawn
  • Nagles
  • Newbeker, Jacob - Client
  • Newbeker, Peter - Client
  • Newbeker, Philip - Client
  • Nicholas
  • Onderdonk, Bishop
  • Orth, Adam, Esqr.
  • Orth, Edward
  • Orth, Mrs.
  • Parke, B., Esqr.
  • Parker
  • Peacock, B.G. - Friend and Post Master
  • Peacock, Elizabeth - Daughter of B.G. Peacock
  • Pearson, Mr.
  • Pettit
  • Philips
  • Pierce, Myers
  • Pike, Mr.
  • Plitt, Lewis
  • Pool, S.
  • Powell
  • Preston
  • Price, Samuel A.
  • Puis, Mrs., Dr.
  • Quailes, Kendricks
  • Ramsey, Albert
  • Ramsey, Henry K.
  • Randall, S.H. - Tailor
  • Rawn, Caspar
  • Rawn, Elizabeth
  • Rawn, George W.
  • Rawn, Julia Ann
  • Reed, Judge
  • Reed, William
  • Rhawn, Aunt
  • Rhawn, Deborah
  • Rhawn, Jacob
  • Rhawn, Samual
  • Rhawns, Aunt Hannah
  • Ritner
  • Roberts, Col.
  • Roberts, Edmund W.
  • Roberts, Mrs.
  • Roberts, Thomas
  • Rogers, H.G. - A student of law
  • Rogers, Mr. - Friend
  • Ross, Catherine - Friend
  • Ross, Mr. - Friend
  • Ross, Rebecca - Friend
  • Rotewright, Miss
  • Rouv
  • Sauman, John
  • Schmuker, Rev.
  • Schoyer
  • Scott, H.
  • Searing, John K.
  • Sebo, George
  • Seiler, J.K.
  • Selin, Douglass
  • Serner
  • Shalls
  • Shannon, Mr. R. - Friend
  • Shegog, J.H.
  • Shiss - Attorney General
  • Shoch, S., also spelled Shock - Friend
  • Shoops
  • Shram, Mr. Jacob
  • Shulers
  • Shunk, Frances R. - Friend and teacher
  • Sibhart Jo. J.
  • Sighter, Jos.
  • Silsburg, Fredrick
  • Ske David
  • Slaon, John
  • Sleves, William, Esqr.
  • Slivard, H.
  • Smith, Fazer P., Esqr.
  • Smith, Thomas S.
  • Smuls
  • Sneoily, John
  • South, George W.
  • Spanglers, Genl
  • Spragg - Editor of Saturday Courier
  • Stambaugh
  • Stegner, George
  • Stehley, John A.
  • Stein, Rev. Nathan
  • Stern, W. Rev.
  • Stewart, Mrs. E. B.
  • Stine, Dan
  • Stoddard, Henry, Esq.
  • Stoever, Senator
  • Stovis, John
  • Strickland
  • Strog, H. K.
  • Subold
  • Susan, Miss
  • Sutherland, Dr.
  • T. Richard
  • Todd, Miss
  • Van Arminage, H. H.
  • Wade
  • Waggoners, Jacob
  • Waggown, David
  • Wahan, John D.
  • Wallace, Clergyman
  • Wallace, Thomas J.
  • Walters, Jacob - Black man
  • Ward - Barber
  • Warford
  • Warner, Samuel
  • Warren, Job, Esqr.
  • Watson
  • Weidman, John A. - Friend
  • Weidman, Misses S.A. - Friend
  • Weiter, Josiah
  • Wells, Sawyer
  • Welsh
  • Wengert, Dan
  • Weutz, Dilworth
  • Wharton, Mrs.
  • Whitehill, George S.
  • Wiestling, B. J.
  • Wiestling, George
  • Wiestling, J. S.
  • Williamson, George
  • Williamson, Lewis
  • Wilson, Mr.
  • Wistar, Roger
  • Witman, John O. Dr.
  • Witmore, Sauling, Esqr.
  • Witner
  • Wolf
  • Wolf, Govorner
  • Wolf, Margaretta
  • Wolf, Miss
  • Wolfsersbuger, also spelled Wofserberger
  • Wood, John
  • Wood, Mrs. C
  • Wood, Nicholas B.
  • Woods, Mrs. Hannah

Works Consulted

Auerbach, Jerold S. Justice Without Law? New York: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Barney, William L. The Passage of the Republic. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1987.

Bloomfield, Maxwell. American Lawyers in a Changing Society, 1776-1876. Harvard Universisty Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1976.

Commemorative Biographical Encyclopedia of Dauphin County, Pennsylvania 1896.

Eggert, Gerald G. Harrisburg Industrializes. University Park, PA: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 1993.

_____ “The Impact of the Fugative Slave Law on Harrisburg: A Case Study” Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, 109 (October 1985), 537-69.

_____ “Two Steps Forward, a Step-and-a-Half Back: Harrisburg’s African American Community in the Nineteenth Century,” Pennsylvania History, 58 (January 1991), 1-36.

Friedman, Lawrence M. A History of American Law. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1985.

Grilliot, Harold J. Introduction to Law and the Legal System. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1975.

Groff, Margo C. “A Lawyer’s Life: the Journal of Charles C. Rawn, of Harrisburg PA, 1831-32.” Masters Thesis, American Studies, Pennsylvania State University at Harrisburg, December 1996.

Hall, Kermit L., William M. Wiecek, and Paul Finkelman. American Legal History: Cases and Materials. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Hays, Arthur Garfield. City Lawyer. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1942.

Jacobstein, J. Myron and Roy M. Mersky. Fundamentals of Legal Research. Mineola, NY: The Foundation Press, 1977.

Zuckerman, Michael “William Byrd’s Family,” Perspectives in American History, ed. Donald Fleming. Volume XII, 1979, pp. 255-311.

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